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Background: The use of total body radiation (TBI) before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) would increase the engraftment without transplant-related morbidity or mortality among Thalassemia major (TM) cases. Case presentation: A 2-year-old female child, diagnosed with TM was scheduled for haploidentical allogenic transplant-based protocol, and after that, based on protocol she was scheduled to undergo a single session of TBI as a conditioning regimen before haploidentical allogenic hematopoietic stem cell tranplant. A total dose of 4 Gy was administered.. The incidence of graft failure was reduced as TBI was used before allogeneic stem cell transplantation. TBI provided a uniform dose of radiation to the entire body, penetrating areas such as the central nervous system (CNS) and testes. Conclusion: Total Body Irradiation with the SAD technique is the most effective way of treatment. As it is comfortable for the patient to undergo, easily reproducible, and it helps to achieve a uniform dose distribution.
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