International Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Research https://www.sumathipublications.com/index.php/ijcbr <p style="text-align: center;"><strong>ISSN: 2395-0471 (Online),&nbsp;</strong><strong>ISSN: 2521-0394 (Print).</strong></p> <p style="text-align: center;"><strong>Journal indexed in following major databases; Logos are embedded with respective links. Go to Indexed in page for more indexing information</strong></p> <hr> <p><a href="https://journals.indexcopernicus.com/search/journal/issue?issueId=all&amp;journalId=32442" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/copernicus.jpg" alt="" width="115" height="32"></a> <a href="https://www.base-search.net/Search/Results?q=dccoll:ftsumathipubl&amp;refid=dcrecen" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/base.png" alt="" width="74" height="35"></a> &nbsp;<a href="https://scholar.google.co.in/scholar?start=0&amp;q=2395-0471&amp;hl=en&amp;as_sdt=0,5" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/GoogleScholar1.png" alt="" width="74" height="28"></a> <a href="http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=ijcbr&amp;qt=results_page" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/logo_wcmasthead_en1.png" alt="" width="102" height="32"></a> <a href="http://index.pkp.sfu.ca/index.php/browse/index/4035" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/pkp-index-301.png" alt=""></a> <a href="http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/search.php?source=journal&amp;sourceid=30542&amp;la=en&amp;fIDnum=|&amp;mode=simple" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/sherparomeo-home.jpg" alt=""></a> <a href="http://imsear.searo.who.int/handle/123456789/170455?subject_page=1" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/rsz_21rsz_1rsz_imsear.png" alt="" width="141" height="30"></a></p> <hr> <p>International Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Research provides an outlet for research scientists in areas of Health Sciences. IJCBR is open access, online &amp; print, peer-reviewed international journal with a primary objective to provide research and applications related to all the health sciences:</p> <p>All branches of Biomedical Sciences,</p> <ul> <li class="show">Biology,</li> <li class="show">Dentistry,</li> <li class="show">Medical Education,</li> <li class="show">Physiotherapy,</li> <li class="show">Pharmacy, and Nursing.</li> </ul> <p>Submitted papers must be in technical English, suitable for scientific publication. All articles have to be original articles that have not been published elsewhere or are being considered for publication in other journals. All articles submitted will be peer-reviewed by experts. Receipt of the manuscript will be acknowledged by email. Every effort will be made to complete the review process within 3 weeks and communicated to the corresponding author. Papers should be submitted electronically on the journal's website. The Editorial Board will strive for the quality of the journal and will also index the journal in various indexing bodies and the information will be updated on the journal website from time to time. We welcome all your submissions. I hope you will consider IJCBR for your next submission. If any further information is required please mail to:</p> <p><a href="mailto:editor.ijcbr@gmail.com" target="_blank" rel="noopener">editor.ijcbr@gmail.com</a>,&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="mailto:editor@sumathipublications.com" target="_blank" rel="noopener">editor@sumathipublications.com&nbsp;</a>or&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="mailto:journaloffice@sumathipublications.com" target="_blank" rel="noopener">journaloffice@sumathipublications.com</a>.</p> <p>The journal accepts manuscripts in the following forms:</p> <ul> <li class="show">Original research articles</li> <li class="show">Reviews</li> <li class="show">Case reports</li> <li class="show">Short communications</li> <li class="show">Letters to editor</li> <li class="show">Discussion papers</li> <li class="show">Clinical Experience</li> <li class="show">Clinicopathological correlation Book reviews and</li> <li class="show">"How to do it" type articles describing new methods or procedures.</li> </ul> <p>Kind regards,</p> <p>IJCBR Editorial Team.</p> en-US <p>The journal <strong>allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions and will retain publishing rights without restrictions</strong>.</p> <p>The submitted papers are assumed to contain no proprietary material unprotected by patent or patent application; responsibility for technical content and for protection of proprietary material rests solely with the author(s) and their organizations and is not the responsibility of the journal. The main (first/corresponding) author is responsible for ensuring that the article has been seen and approved by all the other authors. It is the responsibility of the author to obtain all necessary copyright release permissions for the use of any copyrighted materials in the manuscript prior to the submission.</p> <p><strong>What are my rights as an author?</strong><br>It is important to check the policy for the journal to which you are submitting or publishing to establish your rights as<br>Author. Journal's standard policies allow the following re-use rights:</p> <ul> <li class="show">The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions.</li> <li class="show">The journal allows the author(s) to obtain publishing rights without restrictions.</li> <li class="show">You may do whatever you wish with the version of the article you submitted to the journal.</li> <li class="show">Once the article has been accepted for publication, you may post the accepted version of the article on your own personal website, your department's website or the repository of your institution without any restrictions.</li> <li class="show">You may not post the accepted version of the article in any repository other than those listed above (i.e. you may not deposit in the repository of another institution or a subject-matter repository) until 12 months after publication of the article in the journal.</li> <li class="show">You may use the published article for your own teaching needs or to supply on an individual basis to research colleagues, provided that such supply is not for commercial purposes.</li> </ul> editor@sumathipublications.com (Sumathi Publications) admin@sumathipublications.com (Admin) Tue, 29 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.1.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Histopathological study of non-neoplastic lesions of nose, paransal sinuses and nasopharynx https://www.sumathipublications.com/index.php/ijcbr/article/view/253 <p class="Text">Background: The various lesions of the nose, paranasal sinuses and nasopharynx were subjected to histopathological evaluation over a period of 5 years (2010 to 2015) at the Department of Pathology, in a rural based hospital. Total 84 specimens were studied over the time of 5 years. <strong>Methodology: </strong>The formalin fixed specimens were received with complete clinical and radiological features. Routine gross examination and required number of sections were taken and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. <strong>Result: </strong>In the study, 84 cases were of Inflammatory and Non neoplastic lesions. Nasal polyps were the most common lesions with 77 (91.67%) cases. Among the all Nasal polyps, 77 cases, 20 (25.97%) cases were of Allergic polyp, 50 (64.93%) cases were of inflammatory polyp, while 7 (9.09%) cases were of Antrochoanal polyp. 2 cases (2.38%) each of Sinusitis and Intradermal naevus. Rhinosporidiosis, Mucocele and Nasolabial cyst comprised of 1 (0.77%) case each respectively. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>In our study, most common lesions were Nasal Polyps. Most of the cases were presented in 2<sup>nd&nbsp;</sup>and 3<sup>rd&nbsp;</sup>decade of life with Male preponderance. Nasal obstruction was the most common clinical presentation in the present study.</p> Shah H, Baviskar B P, Dongre S D ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.sumathipublications.com/index.php/ijcbr/article/view/253 Tue, 29 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Differentiating transudative and exudative pleural effusion by pleural fluid cholesterol https://www.sumathipublications.com/index.php/ijcbr/article/view/229 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Pleural effusion is one of the common condition encountered in day to day practise. Pleural effusions represent a very common diagnostic task to the physician. A correct diagnosis of the underlying disease is essential to rational management. Today there are a number of laboratory tests available to differentiate exudates and transudates which are considered cost effective to the patients, so this study was designed for the measurement of pleural fluid cholesterol to differentiate transudative and exudative pleural effusions (sensitivity-97.8%, specificity-100%) with the advantage that a contemporary blood sample is not required, thereby lowering cost of diagnostic procedure. <strong>Objectives</strong>: To study the diagnostic value of Pleural fluid Cholesterol in differentiating transudative and exudative pleural effusions. <strong>Methodology</strong>: This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted on patients of pleural effusion (n=60)age &gt;18 years patients with definitive clinical diagnosis and evidenced by radiological diagnosis of pleural effusion were taken as inclusion criteria. <strong>Results</strong>: The results showed majority of the patients were males (63.3%) and females (36.7%). According to lights criteria 46 patients were exudates and 14 patients were transudates and according to Pleural fluid Cholesterol criteria 45 patients were exudates and 15 patients were transudates with sensitivity of 97.8% and specificity of 100% and accuracy of 98.3%.&nbsp;<strong>Conclusion</strong>: The pleural fluid cholesterol criteria were found to be the most efficient criteria. Since this parameter involves the measurement of only pleural fluid values of cholesterol, it has following advantages-Economically it reduces number of biochemical tests and Simpler as there is no need to take simultaneous blood sample at the time of thoracocentesis.</p> Ayyali Ambresh, Mallanna S Mulimani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.sumathipublications.com/index.php/ijcbr/article/view/229 Tue, 29 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of PowerPoint and Chalkboard teaching in Physiotherapy Undergraduates. https://www.sumathipublications.com/index.php/ijcbr/article/view/243 <p><strong>Background:</strong> A teacher's basic tool for displaying lectures are through blackboards, pegboards, bulletin boards, transparencies with an overhead projector (TOHP), PowerPoint presentation and walk and talk. Nowadays PowerPoint presentation is commonly used as it has ability to present the information in a clear, organized and simpler manner. The present study was carried out to find out the best method of teaching amongst the undergraduate Physiotherapy students. <strong>Objective:</strong> To compare the impact of the PowerPoint multimedia presentation and chalkboard in teaching by assessing the knowledge based on the marks obtained in the pretest and posttest. <strong>Methodology:</strong> 40 students were divided into two groups and a selected content-based lecture in pharmacology was delivered. For one group lecture was delivered using PowerPoint presentation, for second group using Chalkboard. Single - best Multiple Choice Questions [MCQs] paper was used for assessing the knowledge gained. The differences in the marks obtained in the two groups were analyzed <strong>Results:</strong> Students who attended the class on chalkboard obtained significantly higher score in single best MCQ examination compared to those students who attended the same content based lecture on the PowerPoint. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The chalkboard method of teaching was found more suitable tool of teaching and learning than PowerPoint for small group.</p> Rahul Vittal Kedare, Kharat R D, Wagh R J ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.sumathipublications.com/index.php/ijcbr/article/view/243 Tue, 29 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of pesticide poisoning cases in a tertiary care hospital, Mumbai https://www.sumathipublications.com/index.php/ijcbr/article/view/242 <p>The pesticide poisoning is a common medical emergency and leads to morbidity and mortality in developing countries due to easy accessibility and less cost. A prospective analysis of pesticide poisoning cases admitted to the emergency department of tertiary care, teaching hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra from 1<sup>st</sup> January 2006 to 31<sup>st</sup> December 2006. The main objectives, to assess the pattern and socio-demographic profile of pesticide poisoning. The most cases observed in the age group 21-30 years (n:72, 41.37%)). Total males affected were 94 (54.02%) dominating the females 80 (45.98%) and male to female ratio (1.17:1). But in younger age group, females were more affected than males. The maximum cases belonged to the lower socioeconomic class (n:82, 47.12%) and urban areas (n:106, 60.91%). Majority of the victims married and belonged to Hindu religion (n: 140, 80.4%). The occurrence of pesticide poisoning was more frequent in the evening (n:82,47.12%) and during the, monsoon (73, 41.95%).There is a need for adequate guidelines for sale, use, storage and safety practices for the pesticide. These will be helpful for the enhancement of the knowledge, awareness and safety practices among the population for prevention and reduction of the pesticide poisoning. It also emphasized on the early availability of treatment in the poisoning cases.</p> Rajesh D. Kharat, Rahul Vitthal Kedare ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.sumathipublications.com/index.php/ijcbr/article/view/242 Tue, 29 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of MCCD workshop on knowledge and awareness in post graduate residents at a tertiary care teaching hospital https://www.sumathipublications.com/index.php/ijcbr/article/view/254 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Medical Certificate of Cause of Death is a vital document, important scientific tool issued by the doctors. It is the physician's primary responsibility to complete the medical certificate of cause of death correctly.&nbsp; Incorrect filling up of the certificate will result in gross errors in legal scrutiny in medico-legal deaths. <strong>Method:</strong>&nbsp; At the beginning the self-designed, pretested questionnaire open ended was distributed to participants, immediately after distribution pre-test was conducted. After the pre-test an interactive workshop was conducted on the MCCD. After the workshop post test was conducted. <strong>Result:</strong> There was an increase in the knowledge about who issues death certificates, long form of MCCD, who issues death certificate, maximum period within which you have to inform the registrar office about death in your clinic/hospital, detent dead body until your bills paid, what matter you are going to write on 1a. column and version present available in medical students from 0% to 61%, 30% to 100 %, 0% to 91 %, 0% to 91 %, 70 % to 96 %, 26 % to 87 % and 39 % to 100 % respectively. <strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp;In the present study there is an improvement in knowledge and awareness in post graduates students after an interactive workshop on the MCCD.</p> Sandeep S Kadu, Atul A Khalkar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.sumathipublications.com/index.php/ijcbr/article/view/254 Tue, 29 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Awareness and effect of Janani Suraksha Yojana on antenatal care and institutional deliveries in rural, urban & tribal areas of Ahmednagar district https://www.sumathipublications.com/index.php/ijcbr/article/view/255 <p>Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) is a centrally sponsored scheme which is being implemented with the objective of reducing maternal and infant mortality by promoting institutional delivery among pregnant women. The Government of India introduced the <em>JSY</em> (safe motherhood program) based on the principles of CCT. Under JSY, cash assistance was given to pregnant women receiving at least three antenatal check-ups (ANCs) and delivering at institutions. The study is undertaken to establish if there is any co-relation of level of awareness about the scheme and its impact on ANC and institutional deliveries in the rural, urban and tribal area of Ahmednagar district. <strong>Method:</strong> The JSY beneficiaries were asked demographic characteristics, area of residency, educational levels, Category and place of delivery were noted. A set of question (self-designed and pretested) and their responses were noted. <strong>Result:</strong> Out of 825 JSY beneficiaries, there were total 781 (94.7%) Hindu, Muslim 23(2.8%) and Christian 21 (2.5%) beneficiaries. Majority of Hindu religion JSY beneficiaries. Only few member from BPL JSY beneficiaries have opted for delivery at private hospital. Maximum deliveries taking place in civil hospital are from BPL category. It was observed that the awareness level about JSY is low in tribal area compared to the rural and urban area. It was also seen that 648 (78.54%) JSY beneficiaries availed free transport facility out of which 358 (55.24%) fall in high level of awareness category. There is a positive relation between age group and awareness about JSY. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: 46.8% women with high awareness about JSY scheme, it is a programme for pregnant women which aims at safe institutional delivery. Other factors such as education of mother, religion, culture, area of residence, family type played important role in utilization of available maternal health scheme.</p> Swati Dhakne, Deepak Phalke ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.sumathipublications.com/index.php/ijcbr/article/view/255 Tue, 29 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Efficacy, tolerability and safety of intravenous iron sucrose in postpartum anaemia https://www.sumathipublications.com/index.php/ijcbr/article/view/256 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Anemia is one of major contributing factor in maternal mortality and morbidity in third world countries and according to the WHO, contributes to 40% maternal deaths. Postpartum anemia is observed in up to 27% of women.It is a common problem throughout the world. Treatment of postpartum iron deficiency anemia includes oral and parenteral iron supplmentaion as well as blood transfusion in severe cases. <strong>Methods</strong>: This was a prospective longitudinal study carried out in Department of Obstetrics &amp; Gynaecology of PRH, Loni. Total 80 women suffering from postpartum anemia of age above 18 years with haemoglobin (HB) level below 11gm/dl and above 6gm/dl were included for the study. After history taking, clinical examination and baseline Hb level, all of them were administered intravenous iron sucrose 200 mg per dose per day till the total calculated dose was administered. The post therapy evaluation was done with the estimation of Hb on day 1, day 7, day 14 and day 21.&nbsp;<strong>Results:</strong> 31.25% women belonged to the age group each of 19-21 years and 22-24 years. Maximum number of patients received 3 doses of IV Iron sucrose (i.e. total 600mg) followed by 2 doses (i.e. total 400mg), 4 doses (i.e. total 800mg) and 5 doses (i.e. total 1000mg) respectively. Hb level rises extremely significantly (p&lt;0.001) after IV Iron Sucrose administration on day 1, 7, 14 &amp; 21 as compared to corresponding values before delivery as analyzed by Friedman Test (Nonparametric Repeated Measures ANOVA) . 16 patients (20%) experienced thrombophlebitis to IV Iron Sucrose administration. About 12 (15%) patients experienced rigor followed by sweating in 10 patients (12.5%) and fever in 8 patients (10%). About 62 patients (77.5%) from total 80 reported well tolerability to IV Iron Sucrose while remaining 18 patients (22.5%) reported poor tolerability to IV Iron Sucrose <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Intravenous iron sucrose increases the haemoglobin more rapidly in first week as compared to second and third week in women with postpartum iron deficiency anemia. Hypersensitivity reaction, chest pain, dyspnoea reported with iron dextran and iron sorbitol citric acid were not observed with iron sucrose. Intravenous iron sucrose can be used safely to fill a rift between blood transfusion and oral iron in treatment of postpartum iron deficiency anemia.</p> Rucha Rajput, Ashish Podey, Tushar Baheti, Bangal V B, Sarita Deshpande ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.sumathipublications.com/index.php/ijcbr/article/view/256 Tue, 29 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Perceptions of Women about Breast Cancer in Rural Area of Wardha District https://www.sumathipublications.com/index.php/ijcbr/article/view/257 <p><strong>Background:</strong> The incidence of breast cancer is seen to be low in India as compared to western countries, however the mortality is low. The knowledge about breast cancer, breast awareness and self-breast examination is the need of the hour. Breast Cancer, if caught in the early stages, makes it curable by various modalities of treatment. Our study aims here to qualitatively explore the views and ideas of the women in rural area about breast cancer and the need of a better comprehensive program. <strong>Method</strong>: A community based cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample size of 672 with a pre-tested questionnaire with open-ended questions for qualitative exploration. It was done by door-to-door survey. Resident females of the village above 30 years were included and females with chronic illness and temporary residents were excluded. <strong>Results:</strong> The mean age of participants was 42.38 ±9.76 years with 48.2% educated till secondary school and 83.2% belonged to OBC category. The perceptions were assessed with qualitative findings where it was found that most of the females believed that they don't have breast cancer even before getting screened and so they didn't want to get mammography. However they affirmed that a doorstep approach of activities would be beneficial. They also said that doorstep activities help get good information of breast cancer signs and symptoms and program like this will be a good approach. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Doorstep approach can be a welcome change in imparting awareness.</p> Gondnale Goral N, Ingole Abhishek, Mudey Abhay, Kshatrapal Prajapati ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.sumathipublications.com/index.php/ijcbr/article/view/257 Tue, 29 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of tobacco consumption among adolescents from rural area of Wardha district https://www.sumathipublications.com/index.php/ijcbr/article/view/258 <p><strong>Background:&nbsp;</strong>Globally adolescent&nbsp; population is around 1200 million and out of six person, every one person is in adolescence (aged10 to 19 years) period (1). Yet most of them are healthy, but premature death, illness and injury among them can hinder ability to grow and develop to their full potential. It is estimated that 1.2 million adolescents died in 2015 and mostly from preventable or treatable causes<strong>. </strong>Tobacco consumption is world's leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. National Family Health Survey conducted in year 2016-17 reported tobacco consumption prevalence 38.9% in urban area and 48% in rural area of India.<strong> Method:&nbsp;</strong>It was a community based cross-sectional study conducted in eight villages of Wardha district adopted under Community Health Care program run by department of community medicine. Data was collected by interview from 485 adolescent in the age group of 10-19 years by domiciliary visits using pre-designed pre-tested questionnaire from the period October 2016 to October 2018. <strong>Results:</strong>&nbsp;Prevalence of tobacco use (all forms), smokeless tobacco use and smoking in rural adolescents were 20.82%, 20.41%, and 2.68%, respectively. Prevalence of tobacco use in boys (30.29%) was more than girls (4.49%). Higher Prevalence was found in late adolescent period. Bidi was commonly used form of smoke tobacco while Kharra was the preferred smokeless tobacco. Almost all smokers were male but few exceptions were there.&nbsp;<strong>Conclusion: </strong>The prevalence of tobacco use among rural adolescents was very high (20.82%) as compared to national prevalence of 14.6% according to the global youth tobacco survey India 2009. There is a need of early intervention for tobacco cessation as overall mean age of 1st experienced to tobacco consumption was 12.02 years and in male and female users it was 12.25 years and 10.88 years respectively. 42.10 % adolescents 1st time&nbsp; experienced any type of tobacco products when they were in the 12-14 years age and only 0.66% adolescents experienced at the age of 17 -19 years. Maximum male (42.19%) and female (41.67%) ever user experienced their 1st tobacco consumption when they were 12-14 years old.</p> Vishnoi Ravindra Kumar, Wagh Vasant, Gaidhane Abhay, Muntode Pramita, Kshatrapal Prajapati ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.sumathipublications.com/index.php/ijcbr/article/view/258 Tue, 29 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Cytogenetic Analysis of Down Syndrome https://www.sumathipublications.com/index.php/ijcbr/article/view/259 <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Objective</strong>: Down syndrome is a common genetic disease, diagnosed with congenital malformation/mental retardation. Down syndrome occurs in all races &amp; economic levels. It is caused by third copy of chromosome 21, there are there forms of DS. Simple Trisomy 21, Translocation Trisomy and Mosaic Trisomy. The aim of the study is to know cause of Down syndrome. Chromosomal analysis was carried out by G banding technique.&nbsp;<strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: 1 ml of peripheral blood samples were collected in Out Patient Department of pediatrics and Cytogenetic analysis was performed.&nbsp;<strong>Results: </strong>out of 28, 3 female cases, 2 male cases were Down syndrome, All the 5 cases were free trisomy 21, which is common type of Down syndrome; we have not identified Robertsonian translocation and mosaic type of DS. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The present analysis shows that genetic risk factors are responsible for the incidence of Down syndrome.</p> G S Kadakol, Ishwar Bagoji, S V Patil, R S Bulagouda ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.sumathipublications.com/index.php/ijcbr/article/view/259 Sun, 27 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of the force deterioration of different orthodontic elastomeric materials in artificial saliva: An in vitro study https://www.sumathipublications.com/index.php/ijcbr/article/view/260 <p>The orthodontist must be able to choose an elastic band with force-extension characteristics that are most suitable for the particular tooth movement required. From a clinician view it would be mandatory not only to know the clinical aspect of these elastics but also their basic properties, in order to extract the most out of these polymers. Stretching of elastics are thought to be the primary cause of force degradation of orthodontic elastics but there is evidence of increased force degradation of elastics when exposed to various types of substances like artificial saliva, phosphoric acid and citric acid. Orthodontic elastics have received mixed reactions of practitioners as reported by the vendors of orthodontic supplies. The present study is designed to compare the force deterioration of different orthodontic elastomeric materials in artificial saliva medium. There was a force deterioration over time in all materials, being greatest on the seventh day of the experiment, especially more in the chains; From the third to the fourth week there was no noticeable force degradation in either group; By the end of the experiment, modules showed less deterioration of the force compared to the chains and threads.</p> Rajkiran Lokhande, Tushar Patil, Avinash Mahamuni, Krishnakumar Jaju, Ketan Gore, Rajlaxmi Rai ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.sumathipublications.com/index.php/ijcbr/article/view/260 Sun, 27 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +0000