International Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Research <p style="text-align: center;"><strong>ISSN: 2395-0471 (Online),&nbsp;</strong><strong>ISSN: 2521-0394 (Print).</strong></p> <p style="text-align: center;"><strong>Journal indexed in following major databases; Logos are embedded with respective links. Go to Indexed in page for more indexing information</strong></p> <hr> <p><a href=";journalId=32442" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/copernicus.jpg" alt="" width="115" height="32"></a> <a href=";refid=dcrecen" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/base.png" alt="" width="74" height="35"></a> &nbsp;<a href=";q=2395-0471&amp;hl=en&amp;as_sdt=0,5" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/GoogleScholar1.png" alt="" width="74" height="28"></a> <a href=";qt=results_page" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/logo_wcmasthead_en1.png" alt="" width="102" height="32"></a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/pkp-index-301.png" alt=""></a> <a href=";sourceid=30542&amp;la=en&amp;fIDnum=|&amp;mode=simple" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/sherparomeo-home.jpg" alt=""></a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/rsz_21rsz_1rsz_imsear.png" alt="" width="141" height="30"></a></p> <hr> <p>International Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Research provides an outlet for research scientists in areas of Health Sciences. IJCBR is open access, online &amp; print, peer-reviewed international journal with a primary objective to provide research and applications related to all the health sciences:</p> <p>All branches of Biomedical Sciences,</p> <ul> <li class="show">Biology,</li> <li class="show">Dentistry,</li> <li class="show">Medical Education,</li> <li class="show">Physiotherapy,</li> <li class="show">Pharmacy, and Nursing.</li> </ul> <p>Submitted papers must be in technical English, suitable for scientific publication. All articles have to be original articles that have not been published elsewhere or are being considered for publication in other journals. All articles submitted will be peer-reviewed by experts. Receipt of the manuscript will be acknowledged by email. Every effort will be made to complete the review process within 3 weeks and communicated to the corresponding author. Papers should be submitted electronically on the journal's website. The Editorial Board will strive for the quality of the journal and will also index the journal in various indexing bodies and the information will be updated on the journal website from time to time. We welcome all your submissions. I hope you will consider IJCBR for your next submission. If any further information is required please mail to:</p> <p>&nbsp;<a href="">Editor</a> and/or <a href="">Journal Office</a>.</p> <p>The journal accepts manuscripts in the following forms:</p> <ul> <li class="show">Original research articles</li> <li class="show">Reviews</li> <li class="show">Case reports</li> <li class="show">Short communications</li> <li class="show">Letters to editor</li> <li class="show">Discussion papers</li> <li class="show">Clinical Experience</li> <li class="show">Clinicopathological correlation Book reviews and</li> <li class="show">"How to do it" type articles describing new methods or procedures.</li> </ul> <p>Kind regards,</p> <p>IJCBR Editorial Team.</p> Sumathi Publications en-US International Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Research 2521-0394 <p>The journal <strong>allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions and will retain publishing rights without restrictions</strong>.</p> <p>The submitted papers are assumed to contain no proprietary material unprotected by patent or patent application; responsibility for technical content and for protection of proprietary material rests solely with the author(s) and their organizations and is not the responsibility of the journal. The main (first/corresponding) author is responsible for ensuring that the article has been seen and approved by all the other authors. It is the responsibility of the author to obtain all necessary copyright release permissions for the use of any copyrighted materials in the manuscript prior to the submission.</p> <p><strong>What are my rights as an author?</strong><br>It is important to check the policy for the journal to which you are submitting or publishing to establish your rights as<br>Author. Journal's standard policies allow the following re-use rights:</p> <ul> <li class="show">The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions.</li> <li class="show">The journal allows the author(s) to obtain publishing rights without restrictions.</li> <li class="show">You may do whatever you wish with the version of the article you submitted to the journal.</li> <li class="show">Once the article has been accepted for publication, you may post the accepted version of the article on your own personal website, your department's website or the repository of your institution without any restrictions.</li> <li class="show">You may not post the accepted version of the article in any repository other than those listed above (i.e. you may not deposit in the repository of another institution or a subject-matter repository) until 12 months after publication of the article in the journal.</li> <li class="show">You may use the published article for your own teaching needs or to supply on an individual basis to research colleagues, provided that such supply is not for commercial purposes.</li> </ul> Prevalence Of Musculoskeletal Disorders In Patients Undergoing Haemodialysis in a Tertiary Care Hospital: A Cross-sectional study <p><strong>Background</strong>: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant public health problem. Dialysis is the mainstream method of treatment in these patients. This causes the patients to have a monotonous and restricted daily life, joint pain, limiting their activities after treatment onset. Hence this study was carried out to find the prevalence of common musculoskeletal disorders in patients undergoing haemodialysis in a tertiary care hospital.</p> <p><strong>Method</strong>: 50 participants undergoing dialysis in a tertiary care hospital under the age group of 18-70 years diagnosed with stage V CKD were included using convenient sampling. They were assessed using Nordic Questionnaire to locate the different areas of pain.</p> <p><strong>Result</strong>: The first group consisted of 41 participants who underwent dialysis from 2- 41 months. Body regions commonly affected in the last 7 days were low back 25(60.97%); neck 21(51.21%); shoulder 15(36.58%); elbow 14(34.14%) in the extremity with arteriovenous fistula; upper back 14(34.14%); hips/thighs, knees 9(21.95); wrist/hands 7(17.07%) in the extremity with arteriovenous fistula; ankle/feet 6(14.63%). The second group consisted of 9 participants who underwent dialysis from 42-84 months. Body regions commonly affected in the last 7 days were low back 8(88.88%); upper back 7(77.77%); hip/thigh 6(66.66%); neck, knee 5(55.55%); elbow 4(44.44%) in the extremity with arteriovenous fistula; shoulder, ankle/feet, wrist/hands 3(33.33%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The study concluded that the highest prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in the participants undergoing haemodialysis was low back pain (66%) followed by neck (52%), upper back (42%), shoulder (36%), elbow (36%), hips/thighs (30%), knees (28%), wrist/hands (20%) and ankle/feet pain (18%).</p> Sanjaitha Jayaprakash Deepak B. Anap ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-31 2020-07-31 1 4 10.31878/ijcbr.2020.63.01 Prevalence of trismus in HNF Cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy: A cross-sectional study <p>Background: Trismus is a restricted mouth opening due to the tonic contraction of muscles of mastication. It may occur mostly in HNF cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy treatment. This study was undertaken with the purpose of finding out the prevalence of trismus in patients undergoing radiation therapy. Method: 89 patients with HNF cancer patients receiving radiation therapy were included in the study. Inter incisal distance was measured using sliding digital vernier calliper. Patients with ≥ 35mm mouth opening were considered as trismus cases. Result: Out of 89 patients included 72 were diagnosed as trismus; hence the prevalence was 81%. Conclusion: Prevalence of Trismus is very high ( 81 %) in patients undergoing radiotherapy secondary to HNF cancer. Early diagnosis of trismus in these patients can help in time management and also planning of preventive strategies.</p> Snehal Vitthal Naykodi Deepak B. Anap Rohan Kharde Abhijit D. Diwate ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-31 2020-07-31 5 9 10.31878/ijcbr.2020.63.02 Evaluation of sweet taste sensitivity in type-II Diabetes Mellitus patients <p><strong>Background: </strong>The objective is to evaluate the sweet taste sensitivity among type-II diabetes mellitus patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>&nbsp;This is a cross sectional study consisted of 227 subjects (127 type-II Diabetic patients &amp; 100 non diabetic individuals) of both the genders and age matched. Sweet taste sensitivity tests were done using different concentrations of glucose solution and compared among the diabetic patients with FBS more than 180mg/dl and diabetic patients with FBS less than 180mg/dl and also compared among the diabetic patients and non diabetic individuals. &nbsp;The final concentration at which patient was able to perceive the taste was recorded. statistical analysis was done using Student’s unpaired T test. P­values of &lt; 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The mean of sweet taste sensitivity among diabetic patients with FBS &gt;180 mg/dl was 6245 mg/l and the mean of sweet taste sensitivity in the diabetic patients with FBS &lt;180 mg/dl was 2249mg/l with P&lt;0.001 which is significant. The mean of sweet taste sensitivity among diabetic patients with FBS &gt;180 mg/dl was 6245mg/l and the mean of sweet taste sensitivity in the non diabetic individuals was 1979mg/l with P&lt;0.01 which is significant. the mean of sweet taste sensitivity among diabetic patients with FBS &lt;180 mg/dl was 2249 mg/l and the mean of sweet taste sensitivity in the non diabetic individuals was 1979mg/l &nbsp;with P&gt;0.05 which is not significant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>In our study it was concluded that type-II Diabetes Mellitus patients have lesser sensitivity for the sweet taste. Loss of sensitivity leads to the increase in sugar consumption being the risk factor for worsening the disease.</p> Z. Naveen Kumar B.N.S. Gowri Kumari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-31 2020-07-31 10 12 10.31878/ijcbr.2020.63.03 Inter and Intra-rater Reliability and Validity of an instrument made in rural set up to measure Maximum Inspiratory Pressure termed as Dhiraj Maximum Inspiratory Pressure Device <p>Background: Maximum Inspiratory Pressure (MIP) measures inspiratory force generated by respiratory muscles. MIP is measured with non-invasive pressure transducer device which has mouthpiece, pressure gauge, and dial showing readings. Respiratory muscle weakness is a common sign depicted in conditions like neuromuscular disorders, cardiovascular disease, and other respiratory pathologies which affect the individual’s lung volume and capacity. The devices available in the market to measure the MIP are costly.</p> <p>Aim: This study was undertaken to find out inter-rater and intra-rater reliability and validity of therapist made instrument in rural set up to measure maximum inspiratory pressure (DMIPD).</p> <p>Method: This cross-sectional study was carried out in 40 normal healthy individuals without lung diseases were recruited as per inclusion criteria. MIP values were noted by two raters using the DMIPD and were then compared between two rater values to that of the gold standard values. Validity and reliability were calculated using interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and p-value.</p> <p>Result: Statistical analysis for inter-rater reliability by Kappa using SPSS 1.000 showing almost perfect agreement as per Kappa interpretation also for intra-rater analysis an ICC value of 0.96 depicting excellent validity and Cronbach alpha value of 0.97 thereby proving it to have excellent reliability.</p> <p>Conclusion: We conclude that DMIPD has excellent reliability and validity.</p> Sarvesh Vivekanand Rasal Abhijit D. Diwate Deepak B. Anap ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-31 2020-07-31 13 17 10.31878/ijcbr.2020.63.04 Ecological features of the association between mortality and determinants or salient risk factors of cardiovascular disease <p>The multifactorial emergence of the association between mortality and major risk factors of cardiovascular disease is not clearly established. Diverse countries have been monitoring&nbsp; and evaluating mortality and risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease as the levels and trajectories undergo continuous changes. Understanding the combined impacts of these alterations are crucial in taking precautionary measures in counteracting and managing cardiovascular disease. Mortality and risk factor data have been applied expansively for the monitoring and evaluation of cardiovascular disease issues and the spatiotemporal variations across populations. There are extant inequitable distribution of resources in the disparate regions and populations around the world in the quantification and analysis of the mortality, morbidity, risk factors or determinants of cardiovascular disease. The diagnosis of cardiovascular disease tends to be devoid of diagnostic tests of high specificity and sensitivity in certain instances. Poor diet is a leading etiologic factor of suboptimal health in cardiovascular disease. Diet, nutrition and scientific policy measures have accelerated, resulting in ambiguities, and also creating opportunities to obviate the excruciating health and economic burden in cardiovascular disease and other cardiometabolic disorders in vulnerable populations. These indicate that expansive spatiotemporal variations in the incidence between populations are attributable to inter alia certain contradictions in the modalities of event ascertainment, culture, and economic burden. This paper enhances and introduces novel issues, challenges and opportunities in the ecological presentations of the association between mortality and determinants or risk factors of cardiovascular disease.</p> Chrysanthus Chukwuma Sr ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-02 2020-08-02 18 23 10.31878/ijcbr.2020.63.05