International Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Research <p style="text-align: center;"><strong>ISSN: 2395-0471 (Online),&nbsp;</strong><strong>ISSN: 2521-0394 (Print).</strong></p> <p style="text-align: center;"><strong>Journal indexed in following major databases; Logos are embedded with respective links. Go to Indexed in page for more indexing information</strong></p> <hr> <p><a href=";journalId=32442" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/copernicus.jpg" alt="" width="115" height="32"></a> <a href=";refid=dcrecen" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/base.png" alt="" width="74" height="35"></a> &nbsp;<a href=";q=2395-0471&amp;hl=en&amp;as_sdt=0,5" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/GoogleScholar1.png" alt="" width="74" height="28"></a> <a href=";qt=results_page" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/logo_wcmasthead_en1.png" alt="" width="102" height="32"></a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/pkp-index-301.png" alt=""></a> <a href=";sourceid=30542&amp;la=en&amp;fIDnum=|&amp;mode=simple" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/sherparomeo-home.jpg" alt=""></a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/rsz_21rsz_1rsz_imsear.png" alt="" width="141" height="30"></a></p> <hr> <p>International Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Research provides an outlet for research scientists in areas of Health Sciences. IJCBR is open access, online &amp; print, peer-reviewed international journal with a primary objective to provide research and applications related to all the health sciences:</p> <p>All branches of Biomedical Sciences,</p> <ul> <li class="show">Biology,</li> <li class="show">Dentistry,</li> <li class="show">Medical Education,</li> <li class="show">Physiotherapy,</li> <li class="show">Pharmacy, and Nursing.</li> </ul> <p>Submitted papers must be in technical English, suitable for scientific publication. All articles have to be original articles that have not been published elsewhere or are being considered for publication in other journals. All articles submitted will be peer-reviewed by experts. Receipt of the manuscript will be acknowledged by email. Every effort will be made to complete the review process within 3 weeks and communicated to the corresponding author. Papers should be submitted electronically on the journal's website. The Editorial Board will strive for the quality of the journal and will also index the journal in various indexing bodies and the information will be updated on the journal website from time to time. We welcome all your submissions. I hope you will consider IJCBR for your next submission. If any further information is required please mail to:</p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>,&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">;</a>or&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>.</p> <p>The journal accepts manuscripts in the following forms:</p> <ul> <li class="show">Original research articles</li> <li class="show">Reviews</li> <li class="show">Case reports</li> <li class="show">Short communications</li> <li class="show">Letters to editor</li> <li class="show">Discussion papers</li> <li class="show">Clinical Experience</li> <li class="show">Clinicopathological correlation Book reviews and</li> <li class="show">"How to do it" type articles describing new methods or procedures.</li> </ul> <p>Kind regards,</p> <p>IJCBR Editorial Team.</p> Sumathi Publications en-US International Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Research 2521-0394 <p>The journal <strong>allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions and will retain publishing rights without restrictions</strong>.</p> <p>The submitted papers are assumed to contain no proprietary material unprotected by patent or patent application; responsibility for technical content and for protection of proprietary material rests solely with the author(s) and their organizations and is not the responsibility of the journal. The main (first/corresponding) author is responsible for ensuring that the article has been seen and approved by all the other authors. It is the responsibility of the author to obtain all necessary copyright release permissions for the use of any copyrighted materials in the manuscript prior to the submission.</p> <p><strong>What are my rights as an author?</strong><br>It is important to check the policy for the journal to which you are submitting or publishing to establish your rights as<br>Author. Journal's standard policies allow the following re-use rights:</p> <ul> <li class="show">The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions.</li> <li class="show">The journal allows the author(s) to obtain publishing rights without restrictions.</li> <li class="show">You may do whatever you wish with the version of the article you submitted to the journal.</li> <li class="show">Once the article has been accepted for publication, you may post the accepted version of the article on your own personal website, your department's website or the repository of your institution without any restrictions.</li> <li class="show">You may not post the accepted version of the article in any repository other than those listed above (i.e. you may not deposit in the repository of another institution or a subject-matter repository) until 12 months after publication of the article in the journal.</li> <li class="show">You may use the published article for your own teaching needs or to supply on an individual basis to research colleagues, provided that such supply is not for commercial purposes.</li> </ul> Magnesium Status in Hospitalized ICCU and non ICCU Patients With Special Reference to Waterborne Magnesium <p><strong>Introduction:</strong></p> <p>Low serum magnesium levels in hospitalized patients including those with cardiovascular ailments have been reported by many studies. On the other hand, magnesium therapy is advocated but has not yet been conclusively proved. In our earlier study, an association between waterborne magnesium and hypomagnesaemia in healthy subjects was reported. The present study was aimed at the contribution of waterborne magnesium among filtered and non-filtered water users in hospitalized patients.</p> <p><strong>Material and methods:</strong></p> <p>The present study was carried out at SMIMER, Surat. Ethical committee approval was taken. On informed consent, subjects from ICCU and general ward of Medicine unit were selected. Demographic and clinical information was collected. Serum magnesium, cardiac profile and renal profile were analyzed. Patients with conditions such as kidney, liver, brain and other critical illness were excluded. The results were expressed as Mean and SD and appropriate statistical tools were applied to arrive at conclusions.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>Among total 557 subjects including 185 healthy subjects, 93 ICCU and 279 non-ICCU patients, the incidence of hypomagnesaemia (serum Mg &lt; 1.7 mg/dl) was 18%, 36% and 42% was observed respectively. A significant difference (p &lt; 0.01) in serum magnesium between filtered and non-filtered water users in healthy (1.77 ±0.36 vs 2.01 ±0.48), ICCU &nbsp;(1.35 ±0.44 vs 1.72±0.55), and in non-ICCU patients (1.51 ±0.59 vs 1.77±0.51) was found. No significant difference was observed in other parameters.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong></p> <p>Significant hypomagnesaemia was observed among users of filtered water as compared to nonfiltered water users in all groups (ICCU, non-ICCU and healthy), strongly suggestive of contribution of waterborne magnesium in maintaining normal status in the population and inadequate levels may be correlated to a higher incidence of myocardial infarction as evident from the present study wherein a 42% prevalence of hypomagnesaemia in ICCU patients was found.&nbsp;</p> Kirti R Surati Ramavataram VSS Divvi ShreeyasPrasad D Nilakhe Drishty R Surati Vipul Srivastav ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-05 2019-08-05 1 9 10.31878/ijcbr.2019.53.1 EFFECT OF YOGURT INTAKE ON PLASMA GLUCOSE AND SERUM LIPID PROFILE IN APPARENTLY HEALTHY STUDENTS OF COLLEGE OF HEALTH SCIENCES, NNEWI, ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA. <p>This study was designed to investigate the effect of oral intake of yogurt on plasma glucose and serum lipid profile levels (total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein) in apparently healthy students. A total of 30 subjects (16 males and 14 females) were recruited to serve as both test and control groups. Each subject was advised to abstain from milk and similar probiotic food consumption for three weeks. Baseline samples (after an overnight fast and 2 hours postprandial after oral intake of carbohydrate meal) were collected from both males and females at day 0 as control samples, and levels of glucose and lipid profile were evaluated. Subsequently, in addition to their normal diet, each of the subjects received 100ml of yoghurt daily for 21 days. After an overnight fast, post research (test 1stand 2nd) samples (fasting blood sample and 2 hours postprandial after oral intake of carbohydrate meal) were collected on days 11 and 22 respectively and the levels of glucose and lipid profile were re-evaluated. Blood glucose and lipid concentrations were determined using standard methods. There were a significant increase in mean serum triglyceride (TG) value 11days following yogurt intake (intermediate consumption) when compared to the baseline level (0.63±0.15 Vs 0.53±0.19; p&lt;0.05). Also, there was a significant decrease in mean serum TG value 21 days following yogurt intake (post-consumption) when compared to baseline and intermediate levels (0.50±0.19 Vs 0.53±0.19 and 0.50±0.19 Vs0.63±0.15; p&lt;0.05) respectively. There were a significant increase in mean serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) value 21days following yogurt intake when compared to day 11 (intermediate consumption) and baseline levels (1.36±0.34 Vs 1.14±0.24 and 1.36±0.34 Vs 0.99±0.19; p&lt;0.05) respectively. Also, there was a significant increase in mean serum total cholesterol (TC) value 21 days following yoghurt intake when compared to day 11 and baseline levels (p&lt;0.05) respectively. The low-density lipoprotein (LDL) level remained unchanged 11 and 21 days following yoghurt intake (p&gt;0.05). There was a significant increase in the mean blood glucose level (p&lt;0.05). In conclusion, this study has shown that the lipid profile and blood glucose levels in individuals consuming yogurt may experience significant alterations which may have important clinical implications in the management of diabetes. Further studies may be necessary for understanding the mechanism behind these effects.</p> <p>Keywords: Yogurt; Probiotics; Diabetes mellitus; Cardiovascular disease; Glucose; Lipid profile.</p> Onwuasoanya Uchenna Cynthia Ezeugwunne Ifeoma Priscilla Onwuasoanya Uche Francisca Ogbodo Emmanuel Chukwuemeka Nwachukwu Ebele P Analike Rosemary Adamma Amah Ubuo Kalu Amah Akuma Kalu Obi-EzeaniChikaodili Nwando Meludu Samuel Chukwuemeka ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-05 2019-08-05 10 15 10.31878/ijcbr.2019.53.2 Effect of 4 week expiratory muscle strengthening on exercise induced breathlessness in normal adults-a pilot study <p><strong>Background:</strong> During exercising, the expiratory phase plays an equally important role in improving the endurance as it helps in reducing the exercise-induced breathlessness, therefore this study aims at specifically strengthening the expiratory muscles so as to study the effect of expiratory muscle strengthening on exercise-induced breathlessness</p> <p><strong>Aims and objectives:</strong> To evaluate the effect of 4 weeks of expiratory muscle strengthening on exercise-induced breathlessness in normal individuals.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: The clearance from the ethical committee was obtained. Subjects were then screened on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria . 13 Eligible subjects were then enrolled for the study. Written consent was obtained from the subjects before conducting the study. A pilot study was carried out on a total of 13 subjects ranging in the&nbsp; age group of 20-35yrs, where pre-intervention the Maximum Expiratory Pressure(MEP) and 1.5mile walk distance was calculated after which the subjects underwent a 4 week intervention protocol using Expiratory Muscle Strength Trainer 150 ( EMST-150) where the subjects performed 25 training breaths in one session where there were a total of 5 sessions in a day, 5days/week for a total of 4 weeks. Post the intervention the MEP and 1.5mile walk values were recalculated and compared to check for the difference.</p> <p><strong>Result: A </strong>total of 13&nbsp; patients were analyzed for outcome MEP and 1.5mile walk test. Data were analyzed in terms of the mean difference. Statistically significant change was seen in the MEP and 1.5 mile walk test values post-intervention, i.e at the end of 4 weeks, where the values obtained were, <strong>MEP</strong> : pre – 77.537 ±13.67 and post ­­– 88.063 ±18.39 with a p-value of 0.0019 , <strong>1.5 mile walk(vo2max.)</strong> : pre – 35.810 ±14.56 and post – 39.810 ±11.8 with a p-value of 0.0038 and <strong>RPE</strong>: pre – 3.80 ±0.5 and post – 1.7 ±0.5 with a p-value of 0.0057 , thereby proving a statically significant improvement in the outcome measures.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study concludes that Expiratory muscle strengthening improves the maximum expiratory strength thereby reducing the exercise-induced breathlessness leading to an improvement in the endurance level.</p> Akshata Ashok Changwani Dr. Abhijit Diliprao Diwate Dr. Arijit Kumar Das ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-05 2019-08-05 16 19 10.31878/ijcbr.2019.53.3 DRUG UTILIZATION PATTERN FOR SKIN DISEASES IN DERMATOLOGY OPD AT TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL OF WESTERN MAHARASHTRA <p>Background: Periodic auditing of prescriptions in terms of drug utilization study is an important tool to enhance the&nbsp;efficacy of the treatment, to decrease the risk of the adverse effects, to give cost-effective treatment and to provide&nbsp;useful feedback to the clinician. Prevalence of dermatological diseases is very high throughout the world, and in day to&nbsp;day practice, a quarter of the cases are related to dermatological manifestations. In studies conducted in the Out Patient&nbsp; Department (OPD) of dermatology in North Palestine and Western Nepal, irrationalities in the prescriptions have&nbsp;been reported. Aim: To study the drug utilization pattern for skin diseases in dermatology OPD at tertiary care hospital of Western Maharashtra. Methodology: The retrospective analysis of dermatology OPD records of 6 months (1st&nbsp;March 2018- 31st August 2018) was carried out during the study period (1st September 2018 to 30th November 2018).&nbsp;The proforma for collecting data was designed. Demographic details, diagnosis and treatment are given for each patient&nbsp;were recorded. The data collected was condensed, and the master chart was prepared for data analysis. Result: During&nbsp;the study period, a total of 3869 patient’s case records were studied and analysed. A maximum number of patients&nbsp;(26.5%) found in the age group 31-40 years, followed by 23.5% of patients in the age group 21- 30 years. Fungal infection was found in 39.6 % of patients followed by acne in 14.2% patients and eczema in 9.1% of patients. Drugs&nbsp;most commonly prescribed were antihistaminics (45.02%) followed by antifungal (39.6%) and steroids (27.8%).&nbsp;Levocetirizine (74.07%) and hydroxyzine (16.5%) were the most commonly prescribed antihistaminics. Itraconazole&nbsp;(58.17%) and Griseofulvin (24.67%) were the most commonly used oral antifungal drugs. Miconazole (73.73%) was&nbsp;the most commonly used topical antifungal drug, followed by ketoconazole (12.45%). Among steroids, prednisone&nbsp;(52%) and betamethasone (38.05%) were the most commonly used steroids by oral route while clobetasol (68.09%)&nbsp;and mometasone (19.5%) were the most commonly used steroids by topical route. Our study revealed that the percentage of drugs prescribed by the WHO essential drug list was only 23.87%. Drugs which prescribed by the generic names were less than &lt;1%. Conclusion: Treatment protocols used in the management of skin disorders were near to&nbsp;the standard guidelines.&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords: Drug utilization; Prescription pattern; Dermatology; Skin disorders.</p> Kiran P Vakade Vishal A Indurkar Aayush H Chordia ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-05 2019-08-05 20 23 10.31878/ijcbr.2019.53.4 Lessons learned from performance of students of Pharmacology in self coded surprise test with negative marking. <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The present study aims to find the effect of instruction of negative marking in a self-coded MCQ examination on the performance of students in the subject of Pharmacology with respect to the raw score, correct score and negative score.</p> <p><strong>Material and methods:</strong> This longitudinal study was conducted in the Department of Pharmacology, Rural Medical College, Loni. The Second MBBS students were exposed to a self-coded MCQ test twice by surprise. The first test (T1) was given without instructions of negative marking, while during the second test (T2) instructions for negative marking were given. The parameters of the raw score, negative score, corrected score and number of students who did not attempt respective MCQs were calculated. The number of students passing with modified Minimum Passing Level was calculated was compared with conventional Minimum Passing Level.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Sixty-seven students participated in the study. There was a statistically significant decrease in the raw score in the T2, while the increase in the negative score when compared with T1. The number of non-attempted questions was increased in T2. There was a statistically significant difference in the number of students passed with respect to raw score in T1 and T2, while no such difference was seen with respect to Negative score and Corrected score.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The Corrected score and Negative score are not affected by the minimum passing level, indicating a better parameter of scoring than the raw score. Hence, the use of Negative score or Corrected score should be encouraged than the use of conventional Raw score.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Minimum Passing Level, Negative Marking, MCQ, Corrected score, Pharmacology, Formative assessment, surprise test, self-coded test.</p> Sandeep Narwane Nandal DH Pawade RB Kunkulol RR Patil GD Jogdand S ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-05 2019-08-05 24 28 10.31878/ijcbr.2019.53.5 IN SILICO DESIGN OF POTENTIAL 1, 5-BENZOTHIAZEPINE DERIVATIVES AS AN ANTI - CONVULSANT AGENT BY MOLECULAR DOCKING STUDIES <p>Epilepsy is characterized by the presence of recurrent seizures. A seizure can be defined as “an episodic disturbance of&nbsp;movement, feeling, or consciousness caused by sudden synchronous, inappropriate, and excessive electrical discharges&nbsp;in the cerebral cortex”. One in every three patients with epilepsy is probable to be severely disabled. It is continuing&nbsp;this scenario as an attempt to develop potent and nontoxic anti-convulsant agents. Recently the discovery of benzothiazepine derivatives as an anticonvulsant agent is a significant area for research in medicinal chemistry as it is free from all&nbsp;side effects which is shown by a developed as an anticonvulsant agent. In this paper, we have presented results of 2D,&nbsp;and 3D docking poses studies of a series of 300 (Three series) molecules containing 1,5-benzothiazepine pharmacophore as anti-convulsant agents. Docking analysis was utilized to predict the mechanism of action of the designed derivatives for anticonvulsant potential. All the molecules exhibited a binding score in the range of -82.61 to - 118.25 kcal/mol. Most active molecules from Series 1, 2 and 3 exhibited hydrogen bond interactions with LEU282B, LEU282B&nbsp;and LEU282B. Also for the selected standard sodium phenytoin showed the hydrogen bond interaction with&nbsp;LYS637A. It was noted that the docking score of 1a to 10a, 101b to 110b and 201c to 210c was almost the same as that of&nbsp;selected standard sodium phenytoin. The protein showed hydrogen bonding with all synthesized compound showed potential against epilepsy with GABA nergic mechanism.&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords: Anti-convulsant; 1,5-benzothiazepine; V-Life MDS 4.3.</p> Parjane Smita Kunkulol Rahul Nandal Dattatray ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-05 2019-08-05 29 36 10.31878/ijcbr.2019.53.6