International Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Research https://www.sumathipublications.com/index.php/ijcbr <p style="text-align: center;"><strong>ISSN: 2395-0471 (Online),&nbsp;</strong><strong>ISSN: 2521-0394 (Print).</strong></p> <p style="text-align: center;"><strong>Journal indexed in following major databases; Logos are embedded with respective links. Go to Indexed in page for more indexing information</strong></p> <hr> <p><a href="https://journals.indexcopernicus.com/search/journal/issue?issueId=all&amp;journalId=32442" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/copernicus.jpg" alt="" width="115" height="32"></a> <a href="https://www.base-search.net/Search/Results?q=dccoll:ftsumathipubl&amp;refid=dcrecen" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/base.png" alt="" width="74" height="35"></a> &nbsp;<a href="https://scholar.google.co.in/scholar?start=0&amp;q=2395-0471&amp;hl=en&amp;as_sdt=0,5" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/GoogleScholar1.png" alt="" width="74" height="28"></a> <a href="http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=ijcbr&amp;qt=results_page" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/logo_wcmasthead_en1.png" alt="" width="102" height="32"></a> <a href="http://index.pkp.sfu.ca/index.php/browse/index/4035" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/pkp-index-301.png" alt=""></a> <a href="http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/search.php?source=journal&amp;sourceid=30542&amp;la=en&amp;fIDnum=|&amp;mode=simple" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/sherparomeo-home.jpg" alt=""></a> <a href="http://imsear.searo.who.int/handle/123456789/170455?subject_page=1" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/rsz_21rsz_1rsz_imsear.png" alt="" width="141" height="30"></a></p> <hr> <p>International Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Research provides an outlet for research scientists in areas of Health Sciences. IJCBR is open access, online &amp; print, peer-reviewed international journal with a primary objective to provide research and applications related to all the health sciences:</p> <p>All branches of Biomedical Sciences,</p> <ul> <li class="show">Biology,</li> <li class="show">Dentistry,</li> <li class="show">Medical Education,</li> <li class="show">Physiotherapy,</li> <li class="show">Pharmacy, and Nursing.</li> </ul> <p>Submitted papers must be in technical English, suitable for scientific publication. All articles have to be original articles that have not been published elsewhere or are being considered for publication in other journals. All articles submitted will be peer-reviewed by experts. Receipt of the manuscript will be acknowledged by email. Every effort will be made to complete the review process within 3 weeks and communicated to the corresponding author. Papers should be submitted electronically on the journal's website. The Editorial Board will strive for the quality of the journal and will also index the journal in various indexing bodies and the information will be updated on the journal website from time to time. We welcome all your submissions. I hope you will consider IJCBR for your next submission. If any further information is required please mail to:</p> <p><a href="mailto:editor.ijcbr@gmail.com" target="_blank" rel="noopener">editor.ijcbr@gmail.com</a>,&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="mailto:editor@sumathipublications.com" target="_blank" rel="noopener">editor@sumathipublications.com&nbsp;</a>or&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="mailto:journaloffice@sumathipublications.com" target="_blank" rel="noopener">journaloffice@sumathipublications.com</a>.</p> <p>The journal accepts manuscripts in the following forms:</p> <ul> <li class="show">Original research articles</li> <li class="show">Reviews</li> <li class="show">Case reports</li> <li class="show">Short communications</li> <li class="show">Letters to editor</li> <li class="show">Discussion papers</li> <li class="show">Clinical Experience</li> <li class="show">Clinicopathological correlation Book reviews and</li> <li class="show">"How to do it" type articles describing new methods or procedures.</li> </ul> <p>Kind regards,</p> <p>IJCBR Editorial Team.</p> Sumathi Publications en-US International Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Research 2521-0394 <p>The journal <strong>allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions and will retain publishing rights without restrictions</strong>.</p> <p>The submitted papers are assumed to contain no proprietary material unprotected by patent or patent application; responsibility for technical content and for protection of proprietary material rests solely with the author(s) and their organizations and is not the responsibility of the journal. The main (first/corresponding) author is responsible for ensuring that the article has been seen and approved by all the other authors. It is the responsibility of the author to obtain all necessary copyright release permissions for the use of any copyrighted materials in the manuscript prior to the submission.</p> <p><strong>What are my rights as an author?</strong><br>It is important to check the policy for the journal to which you are submitting or publishing to establish your rights as<br>Author. Journal's standard policies allow the following re-use rights:</p> <ul> <li class="show">The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions.</li> <li class="show">The journal allows the author(s) to obtain publishing rights without restrictions.</li> <li class="show">You may do whatever you wish with the version of the article you submitted to the journal.</li> <li class="show">Once the article has been accepted for publication, you may post the accepted version of the article on your own personal website, your department's website or the repository of your institution without any restrictions.</li> <li class="show">You may not post the accepted version of the article in any repository other than those listed above (i.e. you may not deposit in the repository of another institution or a subject-matter repository) until 12 months after publication of the article in the journal.</li> <li class="show">You may use the published article for your own teaching needs or to supply on an individual basis to research colleagues, provided that such supply is not for commercial purposes.</li> </ul> SEROPREVALENCE OF HIV, HEPATITIS B AND C AND SYPHILIS AMONG MEN HAVING SEX WITH MEN IN MAHAJANGA (MAGADASCAR) https://www.sumathipublications.com/index.php/ijcbr/article/view/323 <p>Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are public health concerns worldwide. The aim of our study is to assess infection and coinfection with HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and syphilis among men having sex with men in Mahajanga which is a western coastal town of Madagascar. We conducted a prospective and descriptive preliminary study in the laboratory of the University Hospital Center PZAGA in Mahajanga during a period of three months, from December 2014 to February 2015. We included 100 MSM in our study. Their mean age was 36 yrs (16 to 55 yrs). We found 30% of seropositive men among our sample. HIV positive men are mainly part of the age group [20–29 yrs]. The mean age of positive men was respectively 38 yrs., 36 yrs., 48 yrs.&nbsp; and 39 yrs. for HIV, for HBV, HCV, and syphilis. We found respectively for hepatitis B, hepatitis C and syphilis 7%, 1% and 11% positive samples. We found no co-infection HIV and HCV for them. But we found 5% of coinfection HIV-HBV, 4% of coinfection HIV-syphilis and 1% of coinfection of HIV, HBV and syphilis. We highlighted a very high rate of HIV positivity among MSM living in Mahajanga. Efforts have to be made in order to sensitize them about risky behaviors.</p> Rakotondrazaka H. Riana Rakotomalala Rivo Razafindrakoto A. Cathérine Ramavoson Tsiry Rabenandrianina Tahirimalala Rajaonatahiana Davidra Ralison Fidiarivony Rakoto Alson A. Olivat Razanakolona L. Rasoamialy Rasamindrakotroka Andry Randriamanantany Z Arivelo ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 1 3 10.31878/ijcbr.2019.61.01 Association between serum uric acid and HbA1c in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A case control study in Indian population https://www.sumathipublications.com/index.php/ijcbr/article/view/325 <p><strong>Background and Aim: </strong>Uric acid is a pro-oxidant molecule that might be implicated in increasing oxidative stress and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Hence, the aim of the study was to assess serum uric acid and HbA<sub>1c</sub> level (an indicator of glycemic control) in these patients and speculate the association between the two.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> 40 newly diagnosed cases of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (20 males and 20 females) with age ranging between 35-70 years were statistically compared against 40 age and sex-matched healthy subjects with respect to their uric acid and HbA1c levels. Demographic data like the height and weight of patients was also recorded and statistically compared.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>No statistical difference in age, height and weight were observed in type 2 diabetes cases vs. controls indicating that the groups were comparable. HbA1c and uric acid levels of males and females with type 2 diabetes mellitus were significantly higher in comparison to normal males and females(controls). Correlation analysis showed a positive and significant correlation between HbA1c and uric acid levels in male and female cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Uric acid might have a role in the development or worsening of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, further studies are required with a larger sample size to clearly establish the relationship between uric acid and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus since studies in the literature have shown conflicting results and hence the understanding of the etiopathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus remains poorly understood with respect to uric acid.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>type 2 diabetes mellitus; uric acid, HbA<sub>1c;</sub>&nbsp;etiopathogenesis; correlation.</p> Indu Verma Archana Nimesh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 4 7 10.31878/ijcbr.2019.61.02 VACUUM AND THERMOPLASTIC MOULD-BASED IMMOBILIZATION SYSTEMS USED IN PATIENT UNDERGOING PELVIC RADIATION THERAPY: A COMPARATIVE STUDY https://www.sumathipublications.com/index.php/ijcbr/article/view/335 <p>Introduction: The aim of the present study was to compare two immobilization systems for comparison of setup errors in targeted radiotherapy.</p> <p>Methods: Retrospective analysis was done for the patients undergoing radiotherapy from May 2012 to December 2018 at our institution. Immobilization was performed on 30 patients sessions (Vacuum cushion i.e., Vac-Lok™ = 15; Thermoplastic mould i.e., Pelvicast pelvic masks = 15). A total of 763 cone-beams were analysed. The target lesion location was verified by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) prior to each session, with displacements assessed by CBCT simulation prior to each treatment session. Systematic setup errors, random setup errors, isocenter deviations in the Medio-lateral (ML), Supero-inferior (SI), Antero-posterior (AP), Rotation (yaw) directions of the patient position was calculated.</p> <p>Results: On comparing the Vac-Lok™ and Pelvicast pelvic masks group with respect to Systematic and random error in the lateral, longitudinal, vertical and YAW direction, no statistically significant difference was seen except the random error in YAW direction (P=0.037, Unpaired t-test). There was no difference observed in comparing the isocentric deviation.</p> <p>Conclusion: It was inferred and concluded that using a vacuum cushion for pelvic radiotherapy provides no added benefit compared to using a thermoplastic mould. Thermoplastic mould is recommended for patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy to improve overall reproducibility.<br>Keywords: Rotational therapy; Radiotherapy; Systematic, random error; Thermoplastic mould; Vacuum cushion.</p> Mayuresh Virkar N Arul Kumar Pranav Chadha Reuben Jake Rodrigues Anup Kharde ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 8 10 10.31878/ijcbr.2019.61.03 ROLE OF MULTI-SLICE SPIRAL CT IN EVALUATION OF NECK MASS WITH CYTOLOGICAL CORRELATION https://www.sumathipublications.com/index.php/ijcbr/article/view/320 <p><strong>Abstract: </strong>The swellings in the neck can be caused by innumerable pathological lesions arising from the various anatomical structures lying therein. Multi-Detector CT (MDCT) has now become the new standard in a radiological imaging modality. The utilization of MDCT has resulted in improved resolution and considerable reductions in scan acquisition and display time.</p> <p><strong>Aim and Objective:</strong> This study is an effort to assess the role of MDCT in detection, characterization and diagnosing neck pathologies that correlate cytologically.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods: </strong>A study of 50 cases in a clinically suspected neck mass was studied for 1 year. Contrast-enhanced Ct neck was done and Specific CT criteria were used to characterize the mass so that a probable diagnosis could be made. MDCT diagnoses then compared with cytological results to conclude the efficiency of MDCT analysis of neck mass.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Multi-detector computed tomography helps in precise anatomical localization and characterization of neck masses. Hence, it will be a method of choice for initial evaluation, preoperative planning, and biopsy targeting and postoperative follow-up.</p> <p>Key Words: Neck mass; Cervical lymph node; Computed tomography; Carcinoma.</p> Das Runa Aniruddha Ghosh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 11 13 10.31878/ijcbr.2019.61.04 CORRELATION OF LOWER LIMB STRENGTH, POWER, WAIST-HIP RATIO AND BMI WITH A SITTING-RISING TEST IN 18-35 YEARS AGE GROUP https://www.sumathipublications.com/index.php/ijcbr/article/view/336 <p>Purpose: To investigate the co-relation of sitting-rising test scores with measures of lower extremity strength, power, and body compositions (body mass index and waist-hip ratio). Furthermore, to find out the level of physical activity in the targeted population.</p> <p>Methods: Participants aged between 18-35 years (n=131) of both genders were recruited in this study. Along with performing sitting-rising test, anthropometric and demographic data were collected to calculate body mass index and waist-hip ratio. Lower extremity strength was assessed using a 30-second chair stand test, and power was assessed using a triple hop test for distance. Also, the Rapid Assessment Disuse Index questionnaire was given to dividing the population into two groups depending on whether they are involved more in physical activity or not.</p> <p>Results: Sitting-rising test scores showed a positive correlation with lower extremity strength and power, negative correlation with body mass index, and no co-relation with waist-hip ratio. Further, 76 participants out of 131 were less physical activity and had more sedentary behavior.</p> <p>Conclusion: Sitting-rising from the floor in young adults is influenced by the strength and power of lower extremities and body mass index except for the waist-hip ratio.</p> <p>Keywords: Sitting-rising test; Lower extremity strength and power; RADI score.</p> Neha Gotmare Simran Narang Ruchi Chandra Maneesha Deshpande ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 14 20 10.31878/ijcbr.2019.61.05 ASSESSMENT OF SERUM LIPID PROFILE IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS: A CASE-CONTROL STUDY https://www.sumathipublications.com/index.php/ijcbr/article/view/337 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Hypertension and dyslipidemia are strongly associated with each other, and they are the most common risk factors for the development of the cardiovascular disease.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Compare the serum lipid profile values among hypertensive patients and non-hypertensive individuals.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> 30 patients with Hypertension and 30 age-matched non-hypertensive controls were included in the study. From the serum, total cholesterol levels were estimated by enzymatic (CHOD-PAP) colorimetric method, triglyceride by enzymatic (GPO-PAP) method, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were estimated using precipitant and Friedewald formula, by using commercially available reagent kits. Lipid profiles were compared with controls.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean values of total cholesterol were significantly more in Hypertensives-202.93 ± 28.44 and normotensives-178.76 ± 37.21, P&lt;0.006. The mean values of triglycerides were significantly more in Hypertensives-139.8 ± 18.72 and normotensives-125.8± 12.34, P&lt;0.001. The mean values of LDL-Cholesterol were significantly more in Hypertensives-141.63 ± 11.59 and normotensives-127.83 ± 14.65, P&lt;0.0001.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> As Dyslipidemia is associated with Hypertension, serum lipid profile may be useful in the identification of patients at risk of Hypertension. Hypertensive patients need the measurement of blood pressure and lipid profile at regular intervals to prevent Cardiovascular diseases.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Cholesterol; Cardiovascular Diseases; Hypertension; Triglycerides; Dyslipidemia.</p> Sushma Reddy V Hari Prasad TV Surendra B V ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 21 24 10.31878/ijcbr.2019.61.06 MICROBIOLOGICAL SCREENING OF OTORRHOEA FROM PEOPLE COMING TO HOSPITAL IN MAHAJANGA https://www.sumathipublications.com/index.php/ijcbr/article/view/328 <p>In whole, 56 patients were included. Amidst identified microorganisms were fungus (4,7%) and bacteria (95,3%) to which Gram negative bacilli represented 72,1% (n=44), Gram positive cocci 6,4% (n=10), Gram positive bacilli 8,2% (n=5) and Gram negative cocci 3,3% (n=2). Among these bacterias, <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>and <em>Proteus sp </em>were predominant, with respectively 41% (n=25), 23% (n=14). However, three cases of <em>S. aureus</em> reported, six with <em>negative coagulase</em> <em>Staphylococcus, </em>one with <em>Escherichia coli, </em>one with <em>Klebsiella sp</em>, one with <em>Haemophilus sp, </em>two cases with <em>Neisseria sp </em>and four cases with <em>Corynebacterium sp</em>. Two types of cultures were noticed, one of them monomorphic (91,1%, n=51) and the other polymorphic (8,9%, n=5) to which 3 associations of <em>P. aeruginosa</em>-<em>Proteus sp</em>, 1 association of <em>P. aeruginosa</em>-<em> coagulase negative Staphylococcus </em>and 1 association of <em>P. aeruginosa</em>- <em>E. coli</em>. No resistance to ciprofloxacin was observed with <em>Pseudomonas</em>, <em>Neisseria sp, Haemophilus</em>, and enterobacteria except for <em>E. coli</em>. No resistance to rifampicin was observed with <em>S. aureus</em>. However, the sensitivity of <em>S. aureus </em>to ciprofloxacin decreased (one bacterium out of three).</p> <p>The use of rifampicin or fluoroquinolones should be based on the type of ear infections,</p> Rivo RAKOTOMALALA Patrick RANDRIANANDRAINA Tsiriniaina RAMAVOSON Fiacre RAMISARIMANANA Ainamalala Catherine RAZAFINDRAKOTO Tahirimalala RABENANDRIANINA Davidra RAJAONATAHIANA Odilon TIANDAZA Olivat RAKOTO ALSON Andry RASAMINDRAKOTROKA Rasoamialy Razanakolona ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2020-02-12 2020-02-12 25 28 10.31878/ijcbr.2019.61.07