International Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Research <p style="text-align: center;"><strong>ISSN: 2395-0471 (Online), </strong><strong>ISSN: 2521-0394 (Print).</strong></p> <p style="text-align: center;"><strong>Journal indexed in following major databases; Logos are embedded with respective links. Go to the Indexed in page for more indexing information</strong></p> <hr /> <p><a href=";journalId=32442" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="" alt="" width="115" height="32" /></a><a href=";refid=dcrecen" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="" alt="" width="74" height="35" /></a> <a href=";q=2395-0471&amp;hl=en&amp;as_sdt=0,5" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="" alt="" width="74" height="28" /></a><a href=";qt=results_page" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="" alt="" width="102" height="32" /></a><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="" alt="" /></a><a href=";sourceid=30542&amp;la=en&amp;fIDnum=|&amp;mode=simple" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="" alt="" /></a><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="" alt="" width="141" height="30" /></a></p> <hr /> <p>International Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Research provides an outlet for research scientists in areas of Health Sciences. IJCBR is open access, online &amp; print, peer-reviewed international journal with a primary objective to provide research and applications related to all the health sciences:</p> <p>All branches of Biomedical Sciences,</p> <ul> <li class="show">Biology,</li> <li class="show">Dentistry,</li> <li class="show">Medical Education,</li> <li class="show">Physiotherapy,</li> <li class="show">Pharmacy, and Nursing.</li> </ul> <p>Submitted papers must be in technical English, suitable for scientific publication. All articles have to be original articles that have not been published elsewhere or are being considered for publication in other journals. All articles submitted will be peer-reviewed by experts. Receipt of the manuscript will be acknowledged by email. Every effort will be made to complete the review process within 3 weeks and communicated to the corresponding author. Papers should be submitted electronically on the journal's website. The Editorial Board will strive for the quality of the journal and will also index the journal in various indexing bodies and the information will be updated on the journal website from time to time. We welcome all your submissions. I hope you will consider IJCBR for your next submission. If any further information is required please mail to:</p> <p> <a href="http://localhost/sppp/index.php/index/admin/wizard/2/">Editor</a> and/or <a href="http://localhost/sppp/index.php/index/admin/wizard/2/">Journal Office</a>.</p> <p>The journal accepts manuscripts in the following forms:</p> <ul> <li class="show">Original research articles</li> <li class="show">Reviews</li> <li class="show">Case reports</li> <li class="show">Short communications</li> <li class="show">Letters to editor</li> <li class="show">Discussion papers</li> <li class="show">Clinical Experience</li> <li class="show">Clinicopathological correlation Book reviews and</li> <li class="show">"How to do it" type articles describing new methods or procedures.</li> </ul> <p>Kind regards,</p> <p>IJCBR Editorial Team.</p> Sumathi Publications en-US International Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Research 2521-0394 <p>The journal <strong>allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions and will retain publishing rights without restrictions</strong>.</p> <p>The submitted papers are assumed to contain no proprietary material unprotected by patent or patent application; responsibility for technical content and for protection of proprietary material rests solely with the author(s) and their organizations and is not the responsibility of the journal. The main (first/corresponding) author is responsible for ensuring that the article has been seen and approved by all the other authors. It is the responsibility of the author to obtain all necessary copyright release permissions for the use of any copyrighted materials in the manuscript prior to the submission.</p> <p><strong>What are my rights as an author?</strong><br>It is important to check the policy for the journal to which you are submitting or publishing to establish your rights as<br>Author. Journal's standard policies allow the following re-use rights:</p> <ul> <li class="show">The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions.</li> <li class="show">The journal allows the author(s) to obtain publishing rights without restrictions.</li> <li class="show">You may do whatever you wish with the version of the article you submitted to the journal.</li> <li class="show">Once the article has been accepted for publication, you may post the accepted version of the article on your own personal website, your department's website or the repository of your institution without any restrictions.</li> <li class="show">You may not post the accepted version of the article in any repository other than those listed above (i.e. you may not deposit in the repository of another institution or a subject-matter repository) until 12 months after publication of the article in the journal.</li> <li class="show">You may use the published article for your own teaching needs or to supply on an individual basis to research colleagues, provided that such supply is not for commercial purposes.</li> </ul> A cross-sectional study about socio-demographic factors and clinical characteristics of male patients with alcohol dependence syndrome <p><strong>Background:</strong> Alcohol abuse is one of the major causes of death and disability globally; and a key risk factor for health, social, and economic problems in the communities. Consumption of alcohol by Indians has increased drastically due to various factors and in an unrestricted manner; and the age of initiation of drinking is progressively coming down.&nbsp;<strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the socio-demographic and clinical profile of the patients coming for treatment of alcohol dependence syndrome in the psychiatry department.&nbsp;<strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 male outpatients of alcohol dependence syndrome attending the department of psychiatry at a tertiary care hospital. Sociodemographic data and clinical details were recorded with the help of a pre-designed questionnaire.&nbsp;<strong>Results:</strong> Nuclear family, family history of alcoholism, unmarried status, higher educational level, unemployment, and peer pressure are the factors significantly associated with early age at first drink and age of dependence on alcohol (p &lt; 0.05).&nbsp;<strong>Conclusion:</strong> Adolescents having a family history of alcoholism are a high-risk group for developing alcohol dependence and should be targeted for intervention strategies. Community based-longitudinal studies are needed to understand multiple factors influencing alcohol use and recommend targeted preventive measures.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Alcohol, Alcohol dependence syndrome, Peer pressure, Intoxication, Socio-demographic factors</p> NEERAJ J KARANDIKAR PRITISH K RAUT PRASAD K TAGAD Copyright (c) 2021 NEERAJ J KARANDIKAR, PRITISH K RAUT, PRASAD K TAGAD 2021-02-19 2021-02-19 1 5 10.31878/ijcbr.2021.71.01 Evaluation of Phenotypic Variations in the Antibiotics Sensitivity of Escherichia Coli by Repeated Exposure <p>Enterobacteriaceae, in particular <em>Escherichia coli</em>, are habitual residents of the gastrointestinal tract, capable of causing a large number of infections. The MIC varies according to the bacterial strains and the antibiotics used, hence the need to carry out antibiotic sensitivity tests. The objective of this study is to evaluate the behavior of Escherichia coli after repeated exposure to the same antibiotic to demonstrate a possible correlation between excessive intake of antibiotics and bacterial resistance.</p> <p>A prospective and descriptive study was carried out in the Laboratory of Microbiology of Fundamental and Applied Biochemistry (Faculty of Sciences Antananarivo) during the month of November 2019. The strains studied were the reference strain <em>Escherichia coli</em> ATCC 25922 provided by the Laboratory and two clinical strains from the Microbiology Laboratory of the Joseph Ravoahangy Andrianavalona University Hospital Center (CHU JRA) Antananarivo. Repeated exposure to Tobramycin and Ofloxacin of these strains were performed.</p> <p>The results of our study showed that most <em>E. coli</em> is exposed to the antibiotic, the more it develops resistance. The evolution of <em>E. coli</em>'s sensitivity is different in the presence of Tobramycin with MICs up to 4 times the starting value while in the presence of Ofloxacin, the MIC increases to 125 times the initial value. This difference may be due to the different target of the antibiotic which causes the bacteria to develop variable mechanisms to escape it.</p> <p><u>Key words</u>: <em>E. coli</em> - MIC - antibiotics - repeated exposure</p> Andry Maharo Andrianarivelo Christian Emmanuel Mahavy Marson Raherimandimby Tsiry Rasamiravaka Copyright (c) 2021 Andry Maharo Andrianarivelo; Christian Emmanuel Mahavy; Marson Raherimandimby, Tsiry Rasamiravaka 2021-02-19 2021-02-19 6 11 10.31878/ijcbr.2021.71.02