International Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Research <p style="text-align: center;"><strong>ISSN: 2395-0471 (Online),&nbsp;</strong><strong>ISSN: 2521-0394 (Print).</strong></p> <p style="text-align: center;"><strong>Journal indexed in following major databases; Logos are embedded with respective links. Go to Indexed in page for more indexing information</strong></p> <hr> <p><a href=";journalId=32442" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/copernicus.jpg" alt="" width="115" height="32"></a> <a href=";refid=dcrecen" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/base.png" alt="" width="74" height="35"></a> &nbsp;<a href=";q=2395-0471&amp;hl=en&amp;as_sdt=0,5" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/GoogleScholar1.png" alt="" width="74" height="28"></a> <a href=";qt=results_page" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/logo_wcmasthead_en1.png" alt="" width="102" height="32"></a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/pkp-index-301.png" alt=""></a> <a href=";sourceid=30542&amp;la=en&amp;fIDnum=|&amp;mode=simple" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/sherparomeo-home.jpg" alt=""></a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/rsz_21rsz_1rsz_imsear.png" alt="" width="141" height="30"></a></p> <hr> <p>International Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Research provides an outlet for research scientists in areas of Health Sciences. IJCBR is open access, online &amp; print, peer-reviewed international journal with a primary objective to provide research and applications related to all the health sciences:</p> <p>All branches of Biomedical Sciences,</p> <ul> <li class="show">Biology,</li> <li class="show">Dentistry,</li> <li class="show">Medical Education,</li> <li class="show">Physiotherapy,</li> <li class="show">Pharmacy, and Nursing.</li> </ul> <p>Submitted papers must be in technical English, suitable for scientific publication. All articles have to be original articles that have not been published elsewhere or are being considered for publication in other journals. All articles submitted will be peer-reviewed by experts. Receipt of the manuscript will be acknowledged by email. Every effort will be made to complete the review process within 3 weeks and communicated to the corresponding author. Papers should be submitted electronically on the journal's website. The Editorial Board will strive for the quality of the journal and will also index the journal in various indexing bodies and the information will be updated on the journal website from time to time. We welcome all your submissions. I hope you will consider IJCBR for your next submission. If any further information is required please mail to:</p> <p>&nbsp;<a href="">Editor</a> and/or <a href="">Journal Office</a>.</p> <p>The journal accepts manuscripts in the following forms:</p> <ul> <li class="show">Original research articles</li> <li class="show">Reviews</li> <li class="show">Case reports</li> <li class="show">Short communications</li> <li class="show">Letters to editor</li> <li class="show">Discussion papers</li> <li class="show">Clinical Experience</li> <li class="show">Clinicopathological correlation Book reviews and</li> <li class="show">"How to do it" type articles describing new methods or procedures.</li> </ul> <p>Kind regards,</p> <p>IJCBR Editorial Team.</p> Sumathi Publications en-US International Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Research 2521-0394 <p>The journal <strong>allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions and will retain publishing rights without restrictions</strong>.</p> <p>The submitted papers are assumed to contain no proprietary material unprotected by patent or patent application; responsibility for technical content and for protection of proprietary material rests solely with the author(s) and their organizations and is not the responsibility of the journal. The main (first/corresponding) author is responsible for ensuring that the article has been seen and approved by all the other authors. It is the responsibility of the author to obtain all necessary copyright release permissions for the use of any copyrighted materials in the manuscript prior to the submission.</p> <p><strong>What are my rights as an author?</strong><br>It is important to check the policy for the journal to which you are submitting or publishing to establish your rights as<br>Author. Journal's standard policies allow the following re-use rights:</p> <ul> <li class="show">The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions.</li> <li class="show">The journal allows the author(s) to obtain publishing rights without restrictions.</li> <li class="show">You may do whatever you wish with the version of the article you submitted to the journal.</li> <li class="show">Once the article has been accepted for publication, you may post the accepted version of the article on your own personal website, your department's website or the repository of your institution without any restrictions.</li> <li class="show">You may not post the accepted version of the article in any repository other than those listed above (i.e. you may not deposit in the repository of another institution or a subject-matter repository) until 12 months after publication of the article in the journal.</li> <li class="show">You may use the published article for your own teaching needs or to supply on an individual basis to research colleagues, provided that such supply is not for commercial purposes.</li> </ul> Impact of Sever Plasmodium falciparum infection on Platelets Parameters among Sudanese children Living in Al-Jazira State <p><strong>Background:</strong> Falciparum malaria remains one of the most global infection among children particularly in communities with poor resources. Falciparum malaria associated with several hematological changes that affect the major blood cell lines such as platelets lead to platelets parameters (platelets count and indices) abnormalities.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of falciparum malaria on platelets parameters (platelets count and indices) among Sudanese children. In addition to study relationships and correlation between platelets parameters and malaria parasitemia and parasite count.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>A case control study was conducted in Wad Medani Pediatric Hospital in collaboration with Faculty of Medical laboratory Sciences, University of Gezira, Sudan among 100 children with severe falciparum malaria (mean age 8.63 ± 3.40 years; 61% males), 100 children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria (mean age 8.83 ± 4.20 years; 45% males) and 100 children with normal healthy children controls (mean age 10.08 ± 3.58 years; 50% males). Parasitemia and parasite count (%) was determined directly from thick and thin blood films respectively. The platelets parameters (platelets count and indices) measured by using Sysmex XP 300 N automated analyzer, and platelets count was confirmed and assessed using stained thin blood film. SPSS software (V 20.0) and Stat disk software (V 13.0) were used for data analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>72 % of severe falciparum malaria (SM) have hyperparasitemia, while 18 % among uncomplicated falciparum malaria (UM). The thrombocytopenia account for 43 % (SM: 30.5 %; UM: 12.5 %), low PCT account for 35.5 % (SM: 27 %; UM: 8.5 %) and high PDW account for 46.5 % (SM: 23.5 %; UM: 23 %) in falciparum malaria cases. The mean PLTs count and PDW were statistically significantly differences between falciparum malaria cases and normal healthy control (P value 0.000 and 0.008 respectively). The mean PLTs count and PCT in severe falciparum malaria cases were lower than uncomplicated falciparum malaria cases (P value 0.005 and 0.000 respectively). The PLTs count and PCT had significant negative correlation within malaria parasitemia (P value 0.000; r -0.286; P value 0.004; r -0.205 respectively) and malaria parasite count (P value 0.000; r -0.450; P value 0.000; r -0.270 respectively).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study concluded that thrombocytopenia, low PCT and high PDW were observed as most platelets parameters changes in falciparum malaria. PLTs count along with PCT to be recommended as hematological diagnostic markers and prognostic tool to assess the disease severity and to improve the management of falciparum malaria among patients.</p> Khalid Abdelsamea Mohamedahmed Zeinab Abdalmalik Ahmed Bakri Yousif Mohammed Nour Adam Dawoud Abakar Asaad Ma. Babker ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-04-29 2020-04-29 5 9 10.31878/ijcbr.2020.62.02 ALTERATION IN SERUM ZINC AND COPPER CONCENTRATIONS AND EFFECT OF ORAL THERAPEUTIC SUPPLEMENTATION OF ZINC ON TRANSFUSION DEPENDANT BETA THALASSEMIA MAJOR PATIENTS <p>Zinc is one of the essential micronutrients in human and act as a cofactor for more than 300 enzymes and plays an essential role in human growth and development. It has been observed that there was low serum zinc and elevated&nbsp; copper level in β-thalassemia major compared with normal. Zinc deficiency is considered one of the main factors contributing to growth, cardiovascular diseases, and puberty disorders in β-thalassemic patients. <strong>Aim: </strong>The goal of the study was to scrutinize the impact of serum zinc and copper concentration in patients with beta-thalassemia major and also to observe the effect of zinc supplementation on transfusion dependent beta-thalassemia patients for six months. <strong>Method: </strong>52 beta-thalassemia major patients were studied before and after supplementation of zinc for six months, and status was compared with 52 age and sex-matched healthy normal.&nbsp; Serum zinc and copper concentration were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) method. <strong>Result: </strong>There was a significant depleted activity of&nbsp; serum zinc level (p&lt;0.001), and the copper level was increased significantly (p&lt;0.001) in patients when compared with normal. After six months of supplementation of zinc, there was a significantly enhanced zinc concentration (p&lt;0.001),and copper was marginally increased (p&gt;0.05) when compared with normal and baselines. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Beta Thalassemia&nbsp; major children are on numerous blood transfusions all the way through their life. Due&nbsp; to this&nbsp; thalassemic children are at risk of secondary iron burden. This further leads to the&nbsp; enhanced&nbsp; oxidative stress. One of the way to may overcome this situation to supply regular zinc supplementation along with treatment, which may be helpful to manage the situation.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ghone Rahul A Ghodake S S Bhagart Sonali S Karnik A C ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-04-29 2020-04-29 10 12 10.31878/ijcbr.2020.62.03 A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY ABOUT PERCEPTION OF MEDICAL STUDENTS REGARDING PUNISHMENT OF RAPE FOR ACCUSED <p><strong>Background:</strong> Rape is a significant social and public health problem that has severe shattering effect on victims, including negative consequences on physical health, mental health, academic performance, and interpersonal and social relationships. It is important to know the perception and opinion of young people about the punishment of rape and increase transparency and one’s participation in the implementation of act.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To spread awareness and portray severity of crime by learning the perception of medical students towards the punishment given for rape accused and to examine dimensionality of rape attitudes and its law in youth.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Data was collected from 100 randomly selected medical students with the help of questionnaire and verbal discussion with them.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> All the students were in the age group of 18 to 24 years. Only 47% were aware about the exact punishment given for accused. Maximum (75%) participants feel that death should be the ideal punishment and it should be given immediately as soon as the accused is found guilty. Inadequate mentality and lack of sex education are considered as major causes that provoke a person to commit rape. Majority of the cases are not reported because of social stigma and family reputation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Education is the most favored approach to sex related violence in the community. It is important to support every individual, as it plays a vital role in gaining media and government attention, which is a step forward for the betterment of the society, and soon towards the complete eradication of such social and public health issues like rape and sexual assault.</p> Suba Tvisha N PRITISH KRISHNA RAUT Kadu Sandeep S ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-04-29 2020-04-29 13 17 10.31878/ijcbr.2020.62.04 BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF POST-OPERATIVE WOUND INFECTIONS AND THEIR ANTIBIOGRAMS IN A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL <p><strong>Background:</strong> Surgical site infections (SSI) are frequently occurring in postoperative complications. The present study is undertaken to isolate and determine the frequency of distribution of pathogens in post-operative wound infections and the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the causative organisms<strong>. Methods:</strong> This cross-sectional, prospective study was carried out over a period of one year. 250 pus samples from cases of surgical site infections were processed for gram staining, culture, biochemical identification tests, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. <strong>Results: </strong>Out of 250 patients of post-operative wound infections, 48 are cultured positive, among which 21 were gram-positive, and 27 were gram-negative. Staphylococcus aureus emerged as the commonest etiological agent 17 (35.42%) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 14 (29.17%), <em>E.coli</em> 6 (12.5%). Amikacin (72.9%) was found to be the most effective antibiotic, and Multidrug resistance was observed with staphylococcus aureus (79.16%) and pseudomonas aeruginosa (83.3%). <strong>Conclusions: S</strong>taphylococcus aureus is the commonest etiological agent for Postoperative wound infections. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of various isolates helps in proper selection of antibiotics and in this study, it was found that Amikacin was the most effective antibiotic against postoperative wound infections.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Prasada Rao Namburi1 Sisira D Surendra BV ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-04-29 2020-04-29 18 20 10.31878/ijcbr.2020.62.05 ATTENUATION OF IRON OVERLOAD AND EFFECT OF ANTIOXIDANTS SUPPLEMENTATION ON OXIDATIVE STRESS IN HOMOZYGOUS β-THALASSEMIA <p>It has been projected that ferritin and iron yoke in homozygous thalassemic children is coupled with the enhanced free radical formation and blemished in antioxidative defense coordination. <strong>Aim: </strong>The purpose of the current study was to analyze the consequence of serum iron, erythrocyte catalase, and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (ESOD) in patients with beta-thalassemia major. <strong>Method: </strong>60 beta-thalassemia major patients were studied before and after supplementation of A – Z antioxidants for 20 weeks, and status were compared with 60 age and sex-matched healthy normal.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Serum Iron estimation was carried out by Ramsay’s Dipyridyl Method. Estimation of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase was done by Kajari Das Method. The levels of Catalase concentration in erythrocytes were analyzed by the Goth method.&nbsp; All the objectives mentioned above were run by using a UV visible Spectrophotometer (Systronix). <strong>Results:</strong> A marked enhancement was seen in the intensity of serum iron, and superoxide dismutase (p&lt;0.001) with parallel decline was observed in the level of erythrocyte catalase (p&lt;0.001) in homozygous thalassemia patients when compared with healthy subjects. After 20 weeks of regular supplementation of antioxidants A-Z syrup, which consists of multimineral multivitamins, the concentration of catalase was increased whereas iron and ESOD (p&lt;0.001) were reduced significantly when compared with normal and baselines thalassemic patients. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Due to multiple blood transfusions, beta-thalassemia major children are at advanced risk due to secondary iron surplus and intense oxidative stress. Such kind of circumstances may be handled with supplementation of antioxidants A-Z syrup with their regular treatment.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ghone Rahul A Bhagat Sonali S Bhagat Sonali S karnik AC ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-04-29 2020-04-29 21 24 10.31878/ijcbr.2020.62.06 DOWN TO THE GROUND ZERO: PERSPECTIVE FROM TISSUE DIAGNOSIS IN NEUROLOGICAL TB <p>BACKGROUND/AIM Central nervous system tuberculosis (CNS-TB), a severe form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis presents with non specific symptom leading to delayed diagnosis and increased morbidity. This study compares different modalities of diagnosis of CNS-TB [Multiplex real-time PCR/ GeneXpert, TB culture, Ziehl-Neelsen staining( Z-N staining) and histopathology].</p> <p>METHOD This is a cross sectional observational study conducted in the Department of Neuropathology from October 2016 to May 2019. Total 128 brain and spinal cases which were clinically suggestive of TB and operated were evaluated.</p> <p>RESULT Granuloma, giant cell and necrosis were less evident in spinal TB compared to brain. GeneXpert and culture positivity were higher(100%) in tissue having poorly formed granuloma compared to well formed granuloma. Z-N stain has poor sensitivity (around 32%). Compared to culture GeneXpert was 100% sensitive and 96% specific in brain TB( detected from tissue) and 87% and 89% in spinal TB respectively.</p> <p>CONCLUSION Combined together all these modalities provide a wholistic approach so that not a single case of tuberculosis is missed.</p> Sourav maiti Moulima Banerjee Ruchira Das ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-04-29 2020-04-29 25 29 10.31878/ijcbr.2020.62.07 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANTHROPOMETRIC PARAMETERS AND INTELLIGENCE IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN FROM RURAL KONKAN <p>Aim: To study association between anthropometric parameters and intelligence in preschool children from Rural KONKAN.<br>Method: Children between 3 to7 years of age were examined for anthropometry, dietary recall and Intelligence (Intelligent Quotient-IQ) assessment from rural anganwadis. IQ test was performed by clinical psychologist using Binet-Kamat test of intelligence (version 4). Nutritional information was collected from 24- hour dietary recall and food diversity. <br>Results: Results were interpreted using Prorated IQ <br>We studied 159 (82 boys, 78 girls) out of which 15 (9.6%) had higher IQ. 25 (15.8%) were born LBW. Anthropometry classification showed that 61 (38.4%) were stunted and 25(15.7%) were wasted. According to IOTF, 72 (46%) were thin, 83(52%) were normal and 3 (2%) were overweight. we found that there is no significant difference in IQ with respect to anthropometric parameters, birth weight and nutritional status. <br>Conclusion: <br>We could not find any association of anthropometric parameters with IQ inspite of high prevalence of malnutrition. Brain is vital organ which can be protected by redistribution of blood flow at the cost of other organs like liver and abdominal viscera, which are the markers for future risk of diabetes. There is need to improve nutritional status. New update of IQ test is much needed as the current test is more than 50 years old and does not take into account the social, cultural transition over last 2 decades.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Suvarna Netaji Patil chartudatta Joglekar Swati Sonavane Rupali Chavan Pallavi Bhat Rachana Mohite Pralobhana Deorukhakar Dnyaneshwar Jadhav Omkar Anant Dervankar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-04-29 2020-04-29 30 34 10.31878/ijcbr.2020.62.08